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The Impact of The Use of Detergents in The Life

Cleaning detergent is a mixture of various synthetic materials, which are used to help clean and made of materials of petroleum derivatives. Ie chemical compounds called alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) which is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Compared with soaps, detergents have the advantage, among others, have a better cleaning power and is not affected by water hardness. However, the soap more easily decomposed by microorganisms.
Hygiene is an important factor for public health. To maintain the cleanliness of the body, clothing, housing and public areas needed cleaning or laundry soap product that is reliable. The housewife, hospitals, other public facilities to five star hotels to make sure this one product as part of everyday life for washing clothes and household appliances.
Detergent ingredients:

In general, detergents contain ingredients as follows:
1) Surfactant
Surfactants (surface active agent) is a surface active agent having a different end of the hydrophilic (water loving) and hydrophobic (like fat). Surfactants are organic molecules with the polar lifofilik and parts, which serves lower the surface tension of water so as to remove the dirt on the surface of the material. Surfactants form an important part of all commercial detergents.
2) Builder
Builder (former) works to increase the washing efficiency of the surfactant in a way to disable the causes of water hardness minerals. This material is added to remove calcium and magnesium ions (hardness) of the wash water. Builders can complex formation or through the exchange of these ions with sodium. Builders also increase the pH to aid the emulsification of oil and buffer against pH changes. The most common builder is sodium tripolifosfat (+ 5Na P3O105-), but because the phosphate wastes can pollute the environment, the amount used is limited by the regulations; recently, sodium citrate, sodium carbonate, sodium silicate and sodium tripolifosfat began to replace the builder.
3) The zeolite
Zeolite (sodium aluminosilicate) was used as ion exchangers, especially for calcium ions.
4) Filler
Filler (filler) is a detergent additives that do not have the ability to enhance the wash, but increase the quantity. Sodium sulfate examples.
5) Material antiredeposisi (antiedeposition agent)
Antiredeposisi ingredient is a compound that is added to the detergent clothing to prevent re-deposition of dirt on the clothes. The most common example is cellulose ether or ester.
6) Additives
Additives are materials supplement / addition to making the product more attractive, such as perfumes, solvents, bleaches, dyes and so on, are not directly related to the power washing detergents. Additives are added more for the purpose of commercialization of the product. Example: Enzymes, Borax, Sodium chloride, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC).
Types of Detergent
Based on its physical form, detergents are divided into:
1. Liquid detergent, liquid detergents are generally similar to the detergent powder. What distinguishes the physical form only. In Indonesia my knowledge this has not been commercialized liquid detergents, typically used for modern laundry use large capacity washing machine with advanced technology.
2. Detergent cream, cream detergents form with a dab of soap formula is almost the same but the content of the raw materials they are different.
3. Detergent powder, detergent powder types are circulating in the community or used when washing clothes. Based on the state of granulated, powdered detergents can be divided into two: Detergent powder Detergent hollow and solid powder. Differences in grain form two groups was caused by differences in the manufacturing process.
Detergent Dangers
Detergent can cause a negative impact both on health and the environment. The two most important ingredients of the detergent-forming surfactants and builders, have identified direct and indirect effects on humans and the environment.
Surfactants can cause rough skin surface, the loss of natural moisture on the skin surface and increase the permeability of the outer surface. The test results show that human skin is only able to tolerate contact with chemicals containing 1% LAS and AOS with irritation due to 'being' on the skin. Cationic surfactants are toxic if ingested compared with anionic surfactants and non-ionic. Rest of the ingredients contained in the detergent surfactants can form klorinisasi chlorbenzene in drinking water treatment process taps. Chlorbenzene is a chemical compound that is toxic and harmful to health. At first the type of ABS surfactants are widely used by industrial detergents. But because it found evidence that the ABS has a high risk to the environment, this material has now been replaced with another material that is LAS.
Builders, one of the most widely used in the detergent is phosphate. Phosphate plays an important role in detergent products, as a softener water. This material can reduce water hardness by binding to calcium and magnesium ions. Thanks softenernya action, the effectiveness of laundry detergents increased power. Phosphate is usually found in general form of Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate (STPP). Phosphate has no toxicity, but rather is one of the essential nutrients needed living. But the amount is too much phosphate can lead to nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) in the body of excess water, so that the water bodies of oxygen deficiency resulting from the growth of algae (phytoplankton) which is the excess of food bacteria. Excessive bacterial population will use the oxygen contained in the water until such time as there is a shortage of oxygen in water bodies and in the end it is jeopardizing the lives of creatures and the surrounding water. In some countries, the use of phosphates in detergents has been banned. As an alternative, has developed the use of zeolite and citrate as a builder in detergents.
Pollution or contamination is a state where an environment is no longer natural because it has been contaminated by pollutants. For example, river water is not polluted the water is still pure and natural, no chemicals are dangerous, while the river water has been polluted by detergent for example, contain chemicals that are dangerous, both for organisms that live in the river as well as for other living things living around the river.
Pollutant is any substance or substances that pollute the environment. Detergents including wastewater pollutants because they have such a substance called ABS. Types of detergents are widely used as ingredients in household laundry detergents are anti stain. This type of detergent containing ABS (alkyl benzene sulphonate) which is a relatively harsh detergents. Detergent is difficult destroyed by microorganisms (nonbiodegradable) so that it can cause environmental pollution (Rubiatadji, 1993). Sewage polluted aquatic environments harsh detergents category in high concentrations will threaten and endanger the lives of human biota, water and biota that consume them.
The most obvious effect is caused by household waste Detergent is the occurrence of eutrophication (rapid growth of algae and water hyacinth). Detergent wastes are discharged into the pond or marsh will trigger the explosive growth of algae and water hyacinth that are water could not be penetrated by sunlight, oxygen levels are drastically reduced, the life of degraded water biota, and nutrients is increasing very rapidly. If this is not addressed, ecosystems will be disrupted and cause harm man himself, as an example only neighborhood sewer disposal channels. Indirectly must dispose of household waste through the sewers this detergent, and let's see, at the end of the sewer line so much water hyacinth living with a very large population density.
Besides damaging the natural environment, the perceived adverse effects of detergents are not separated from its customers. The impact can also cause disturbances in the environment on human health. When after we wash clothes, our hands feel dry skin, burning, blistering, cracking, peeling easy to cause itching and sometimes become allergic.
Detergent is very dangerous for the environment because of some studies say that the detergent has the ability to dissolve the ingredients are carcinogens, such as 3.4 Benzonpyrene, in addition to the disruption of health problems, the content of detergents in drinking water will cause odor and bad taste. In the long term, drinking water has been contaminated waste potentially detergents as a cause of cancer (carcinogenic). Detergent decomposition process will result in residual benzene when reacted with chlorine to form chlorobenzene compounds are very dangerous. Contact benzene and chlorine are very likely to occur in drinking water treatment, considering the use of chlorine (which it contains chlorine) as a germ killer on the chlorination process.
High phosphate detergent such as tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) can be purchased at some paint stores and hardware. Regular cleaning with high-phosphate detergents have been shown to be effective in reducing dust contained in the window and around doors. Whats happens if waste Detergent mixed with water? Detergent has a toxic effect in the water. All Detergent destroy the external mucus layers that protect fish from bacteria and parasites, in addition to detergents can cause damage to the gills. Most fish will die if the concentration of 15 parts per million Detergent. Detergent with low concentrations were fixed as much as 5 ppm can kill fish eggs. Detergent surfactants was no less dangerous because the type of detergent was shown to reduce the breeding ability of aquatic organisms.
Detergent also had a big hand in lowering water quality. Organic chemicals such as pesticides and phenols will be easily absorbed by fish, with only 2 ppm concentrations of detergents can be absorbed by fish twice the amount of other chemicals. Detergent also negative effects on water biota. Phosphates in detergents can trigger the interest of freshwater algae to release toxins and deplete oxygen in the water. When algae decompose, they use the available oxygen to sustain life.
Hazard Prevention Detergent
Detergent user community awareness of the impact of the machine behind the benefits of washing machine detergent needs to be improved. Community participation in reducing the negative impact caused by the use of detergents is expected. The number of product choices that are informed through advertising can indeed benefit consumers. But consumers still need to be careful, because a mistake will harm consumers choose the product itself. We recommend that consumers choose a detergent that on the package labeling to include trade names, contents of / net, the name of the active ingredient, the name and address of the manufacturer, distribution license number, number of production code, usability and usage instructions, as well as warning signs and ways to cope in the event of an accident. In addition it is advisable for consumers to choose products that include active ingredients that are safer and environmentally friendly. Information about environmentally friendly products can be seen on the label either logo green and environmentally friendly claims. In addition the manufacturer should provide more complete information about the product.
The ability of various detergents to remove dirt on the cloth or other object, reducing the presence of germs and bacteria that cause infections and increase the service life of fabrics, carpets, household appliances and other home appliances, has no doubt. Because of the many benefits of the use of detergents, thus becoming an important part that can not be separated from the life of modern society.
There are two measures that are used to see the extent to which products are environmentally safe chemical toxicity (toxicity) and the dust (biodegradable). ABS biodegradable in the environment has a very low level, so that the detergent is categorized as 'non-biodegradable'. In conventional wastewater treatment, the ABS can not break down, about 50% active ingredient ABS escaped into the processing and disposal system. This can cause problems of water poisoning on the biota and water quality degradation. LAS has better characteristics, although it can be said to be environmentally friendly yet. LAS alkyl groups having straight / branched not easily be decomposed by microorganisms.
Another thing to be noticed by consumers in the use of detergents is the correct way. In some detergent powder there was no proper guidance. That is when the consumer is recommended to use a handheld dose. This is quite risky because of the alkaline detergents which means corrosive to the skin. Moreover, if the user's skin is sensitive, then the dose of detergent is to use the term 'handheld' that will instantly give skin reactions in the form of itchy, dry and cracked. In addition, cell dose that is definitely not the size, because the only form about which very much depends on the size of someone's hand. So the tendency of consumers to use it excessively large. In addition, because of the advertising slogans Detergent products in both electronic and print media, consumer perception arose that the foam can wash a lot cleaner. Though the foam that does not mean too much detergent to be more effective, on the contrary, power washing is inhibited. In addition the presence of bubbles in the surface water bodies to be one cause of air and water contact is limited so that the lower the dissolved oxygen. Thus will lead to aquatic organisms of oxygen deficiency and can cause death. Therefore, consumers should use a special measure for detergents and drinks manufacturers are providing the tools in the product packaging.
We need to be careful in choosing cleaning materials, such materials do not cause adverse effects on the environment. Several types of detergents are described by the decomposition difficult. If the detergent is mixed with ground water used as sources of human drinking water or livestock water the soil will be harmful to health. Therefore, we should choose a detergent that waste can be broken down by microorganisms (biodegradable). The ill effects that can be caused by the use of detergents that are not selective or are not careful:
1. destruction of the beauty of the marine environment;
2. threaten the lives of the animals that live in water, and
3. detrimental to human health.
Use a detergent with the wise, do not waste water washing into the waters of the many organisms that live in it. Use our knowledge to create solutions to these problems, such as eco-friendly detergents.

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